Indian Bent Trees: History or Legend

Indian Bent Tree.  Copyright Jill Henderson

By Jill Henderson – Show Me Oz

In the woods near my home is an unusual tree.  At some point in its long life the tree was bent into a distinctive L-shape.  The trunk is almost perfectly horizontal and nearly touches the ground, running almost five feet before making an abrupt 90 degree turn towards the heavens.  It’s a perfect place for two people to sit back and observe the forest hillside and all its goings on.  But it is much more than a handy bench – it is an ancient form of communication and a little-understood piece of Native American cultural history

These unusual trees are known by many names including Indian Trees, Bent Trees, Sign Trees, Marker Trees, and Water Trees – all of which are descriptive names for trees that point to a specific direction, location, or special feature.  There are a number of historically confirmed bent trees that were made specifically for areas where special gatherings and ceremonies were held.

According to Wikipedia, a well-defined circle of trees made in 1830 by the Odawa  (Ottawa) Indians of Michigan still exists to this day.  The trees form a circle around an area where the tribe held important councils.  Each tree “takes a sharp bend away from the center of the circle at a height of eight feet and then turns up again; a dramatic and elegant design meant to honor this location that had been and would continue to be sacred to their people.”

Most bent trees are found in the eastern half of the United States – from Texas north to Minnesota and all parts east.  I found no reports of such trees from the Great Plains, Desert Southwest, the Pacific Ranges or the Rocky Mountains.

While some bent trees are known to mark locations of special importance, such as council grounds, many far-flung marker trees obviously point to sources of potable water such as a stream, spring or river.  For anyone traveling on foot through rugged and unfamiliar territory, as the early Native Americans did before horses arrived on the scene, water would have been the most important of necessities.  I’ve done a lot of back country hiking in my day and I can assure you that finding potable water in rugged mountainous and wooded terrain can be like finding a needle in a haystack.

Some researches believe that bent trees may have also been marked with additional “written” signs, such as slashes, drawings, and other unnatural deformations of the tree that more clearly described what lie ahead.   It’s not hard to imagine a sign pointing towards a much-used trail, a secure shelter like a cave or bluff, a safe place to camp for the night, good hunting ground, or perhaps even a place where edible or medicinal plants grew in abundance.

One of three bent trees found on my property.  Copyright Jill HendersonTo use the bent tree map, all one had to do was follow the direction the tree was growing (or pointing) in until you either found the next marker tree or the thing the first one was pointing to.  I decided to follow my bent tree, which pointed down into a hollow with what is now a wet-weather creek.  I’ve been told that long ago there was a spring on this property.  Perhaps this is what the tree points to.  I followed the invisible line the bent tree seemed to be pointing me in and I found two more bent trees – one right after another.  Each one begged me to turn slightly to the right a little more each time.  At the bottom of the draw I could go no further without trespassing, but I quickly realized that the trees were likely leading me to a major river less than six miles away.

Occasionally, bent trees are referred to as Buffalo Trees because someone once said that indigenous people used the trees to de-fur and tan hides.  And while this seems like a good explanation, it doesn’t ring true.  In most native cultures, tanning raw hides was the exclusive work of women.  And while they might have used trees to de-fur the hides this way, they usually didn’t do it out in the middle of nowhere – they did it in camp where it was safe.

Now, all of this bent tree business fairly begs one to ask how to tell the difference between a regular old tree and a true Indian Bent Tree – and that’s a good question.

True bent trees are very, very old.  In the Ozarks, any existing bent tree would have had to have been made by the time the Osage Indians left the area in the early 1820’s.   As of 2014, any true bent marker tree would have to be at least 194 years old.  The true age of any tree can only be determined through the analysis of tree rings from the lower part of the trunk.  Professional arborists use a specific boring tool to remove a small tree ring sample without fatally injuring the tree.  Just because a tree isn’t extremely large does not mean it’s not old.  Trees bent in this fashion often grow slower than normal trees.

True bent trees often have scars where they were pinned down as saplings.  It is believed that young white oak saplings were the trees of choice because they often lived a long time and were flexible enough to bend without breaking the outer bark or the inner cambium just below the bark, which would likely kill the tree.

To bend a tree a large sapling was used.  All the branches would be removed leaving only the tip of the tree intact.  The sapling would be laid down parallel to the ground from a place along the main trunk close to the base of the tree.  Many trees were secured with a heavy leather “thong” or strap wrapped around the trunk and anchored to the ground.  For larger saplings, a large branch in the shape of a “Y” might be driven into the ground a little distance from the tree and used as a support to bend, but not break, the trunk and tied in place with leather thongs or plant-fiber rope.  Once the main trunk was secured, the tip of the tree was anchored as well.

As the sapling grew, the tip naturally grew upwards, leaving the mature tree in the shape of an “L” or a long curvy “S”.   Over time, the leather straps, rope and bracing would rot away, leaving tell-tale scars in the bark.

Large and unusual indentations in the trunks of bent trees might indicate the use of straps, thongs, or Y-shaped wooden forks to hold the tree in place.I can’t make out much scarring on the bent trees on my property, but the sides of every single one have large and unnatural indentations on either side of the horizontal trunk, as if something had pinched the tree from both sides as it grew.

Ross Malone, author of Tales of Missouri and the Heartland, commenting on an article in Missouri Life Magazine entitled Thong Trees, noted that “…some of these trees are huge and ancient but many are not. Some old-timers wrote to me saying that, as children, they fashioned “playground equipment” by bending a sapling over and fastening it with a rope. This little tree would then become a play horse or some such bouncing toy.”   I imagine Indian children may have done this as well.  Yet, those made by settler’s children would likely be found very near old homesteads and not be nearly as old as a true Indian Bent Tree.

If you have ever walked in the woods or done a lot of hiking, you will instinctively know that a tree bent at a near 90 degree angle is almost unheard of.  I have seen many a twisted or curled tree that was the result of having another tree fall on it while it was young.  These are known as “casualty trees” and the difference between these and true Indian Bent Trees is pretty stark.

I’m pretty sure I know where the bent trees on my property point to and will follow-up that lead one day after I get permission to cross on to other people’s land.  Until then, I will add a new name to the lexicon of bent trees and will christen my bent tree as “The Sitting Tree”, for even if I can’t know for sure where it leads just yet, it fairly begs the weary traveler to come set a spell.

© 2014 Jill Henderson  Feel free to share with a link back to the original article.

If You Find an Indian Bent Tree:
Begin by protecting it from being cut down or damaged. Consider sharing it and the history of bent trees with regional conservationists. And last, but not least, consider contacting one or all of the following groups who are working to map trees like these before they are gone forever.
Great Lakes Trail Marker Tree Society website
Association for Native American Sacred Trees and Places (NASTaP).
You can find their gallery here:

Read more about Indian Bent Trees…

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Jill Henderson is an artist, author, and the editor of Show Me Oz . Her books, The Healing Power of Kitchen Herbs, The Garden Seed Saving Guide and A Journey of Seasons can be found in the Show Me Oz Bookstore.  Jill is a contributing author for Acres USA and Llewellyn’s Herbal Almanac and her work has appeared in The Permaculture Activist and The Essential Herbal.

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33 responses to “Indian Bent Trees: History or Legend

  1. Reblogged this on Left Hook by Dean Henderson and commented:
    Guest post by my better half…

  2. Hi Jill
    Here in the traditional territory of the Okanagan Nation
    It was a normal practice to bend trees to mark significant places like a boundary or meeting place. I heard from a cultural researched that some pre contact modified trees (pine) are still alive near the Kettle River area.
    I have enjoyed your pieces before. Thanks for this


  3. There is a tree like that on a local golf course in my area. It grows up 6 or 8 feet, takes a 110 degree turn back toward the ground running another 6 or 8 feet till it’s almost touching the ground, then it turns straight up. Even if it didn’t have that mysterious bend it would still be one of the more impressive trees I have ever seen just for the sheer diameter of the trunk, that I wouldn’t even want to try to estimate just from memory. All I can say is it’s as thick as I’ve ever seen.

    Curiously enough it does point to the stream that runs through the middle of the course. One thing I do wonder about, does the bending somehow make those trees live longer. If big = old, we know that is not always the case, but lets just say it does in this particular one. Why would this be the biggest oldest tree for 50 miles in any direction? It can’t be mere coincidence.

    Loved the article, thanks.

    • Hi, Scott, glad you enjoyed it! That sounds like a huge tree! And you’re observation is correct. Trees that are bent in this way tend to grow slower. And, like a bonsai, can also be much smaller at greater ages. The main one on my place is like that – very large in diameter around the bent portion, with the upward shooting tip not being nearly as large.

  4. Bent Trees in N. Utah

  5. I had one outside my bedroom window, Jill, at my former home. It pointed to water…..I loved it, and all of my cats loved to lay on the bent trunk. It pointed perfectly to a nearby stream located near here.

    • Very cool, Di! What a great spot to have a bent tree! Mine is not far from the house here and it really is a great place to set a spell and enjoy the woods. I

      On Wed, Dec 10, 2014 at 5:52 PM, Show Me Oz wrote:


  6. Thanks. Neat article. I grew up out west where White oaks and even maples are very rare. Never saw these until I moved East.

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  8. found bent tree not very big ontario canada outside kingston in country

    • Awesome, Dave! Once you start looking, you’ll often find others in the same general area. When you find a tree that looks as if it has been bent, do your best to confirm that the tree is very old, bent low on the trunk and shows some signs of being strapped down… these are the hallmarks of true bent trees! Thanks for sharing!

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  10. Hello Jill,you might want to read the Book… Native American Trail Marker Trees marking paths through the wilderness……A book written after 30 years of field research ,with Native Americans,Historians,Arborists,guides,making over two hundred trips to 42 states and 5 provinces.keep up the good work,
    just so you know I am the Author Jill,thanks again,Dennis

    • Hi Dennis. Thanks. I’d love to read it. It’s a very a fascinating subject and since then, I’ve seen many very obvious examples. Before I wrote that article I did a lot of researching and was surprised at how little in-depth information was available out there. I’d be more than happy to run an excerpt from the book or an article written by you on the topic. Just let me know.

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  12. This is so interesting. I live on Indian ground and have a tree like this and did not know this was such a thing. I also live two miles from a gigantic Hopewell Mound here in Indiana that is not well known. Is there anyone I can submit a picture too that could verify. I also have a smaller tree that has done the same thing on the property which makes no sense naturally.

    • Hi, Aaron. Bent trees do occur naturally, but the difference between a true marker tree and a naturally bent tree are obvious to the trained eye. True marker trees are very old. I would suggest you read a previous article published on Show Me Oz by Dennis Downes, the foremost leading investigator of Indian marker trees. You can find that article here: At the end of this article, I post a link to the Great Lakes Trail Marker Tree Society website ( where you can see many examples of confirmed bent trees and contact members of the society for more information. Good luck and please do let us know if you find that your tree is a true Indian marker tree!

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  14. I just bought a piece of property, it has a very old oak that 1 limb was growing towards the ground, and now its growing upwards. There are several very large oak trees on the property, but this one I call it the elbow tree. Didnt know anything about these till I started reading about them.

  15. I live at 8,000 feet in the San Juan mountains of Colorado. I have a bent tree in the front yard. It grows horizontally about 10 feet prior to turning vertically. i was told that the Native Americans in this area ( the Utes) felt these trees were very special. It is very interesting to look at.

    • Hi, Chip. Thanks for sharing that. I’ve never heard of bent trees in Colorado, but I don’t doubt for a minute that they exist across the entire country. Once you know what to look for, you begin to understand how widespread the practice was. A lot of marker trees were never cut down (thank goodness) because their shapes make them nearly useless for milling into lumber. True marker trees also have an energy about them that is hard to describe, but palpable. Of course, Native Americans had many methods of marking sacred sites and “roads” aside from bent trees. And if you look into the earliest primary roads that were built in any state and across the country by early settlers, you will find that a great majority were based on a massive network of trails created by Native Americans.

  16. Hi Jill
    I have never heard of Indian trees until yesterday. We were staying at Glen Isle resort just west of Bailey, CO. We were taking a tour of their lodge, built in 1899, when the owner mentioned Indian Trees. We had never heard of them and she said there were several on their property. She took us out to see one and then we found several more on our own. They have an organization called Association for Native American Sacred Trees and Places (NASTaP). If you are interested in more information their website is

  17. Dennis Downes

    Great lakes trail marker tree society…
    Trail marker tree. Com
    Native American trail marker trees marking paths through the Wilderness..

  18. Hello God bless .I’m David from Barry missouri.i also no about the bent trees around my countyand not just the ones on trail of tears..I can show and know were thousands of Indian and ancient marker trees are ..u might not believe me but I promise there here and very the great grandson of Osage /Delaware native .Indian..and a mesager of god ..if interested in hearing my story please contact me #########.

    • Hello, David. Thank you for reaching out. I removed the phone number from your comment for your protection. If you would like me to reinsert it so others can contact you, please let me know and I will put it back. As for your story, I totally believe you! As you know, these iconic trees were used much the way street signs are used today. Some marked sacred grounds, camp sites, water, food, and other trails winding through what was once a vast wilderness. Once I learned to recognize trail trees – the real ones, not those that are natural anomalies – I saw them quite frequently when out in the woods. I think the most important thing we can do when trees like these are found is to register them in one of the two databases listed at the end of this article. They won’t live forever and we are losing these historic markers every day. I would be happy to share some images of the trees if you like. I just sent you a private email where you can get in touch with me. God bless to you, too. And thank you for sharing!

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